This snippet is very similar to the Learn Dash Code and once you understand how it works can be used in the same wpseo_breadcrumb_filter.
Once you have read that please review the gist code snippet
In this function the IF statement to determine if we need to edit a call is uses a is_tax function in WordPress.
This is looking for a taxonomy that is available and to then edit the breadcrumb path.
This is very useful for custom post types and you can see it in action on the Divi Framework Product Database.
When you go into a category, say Free Plugins, you will see the breadcrumb path updated to have products and category shown.
Without this snippet you will only get a category name and not the top classification.
With a simple edit, you can add any Taxonomy as a new IF statement and replace the breadcrumb path again.